World Immigration Report released! What is the latest trend of global immigration?
On May 8, 2018, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Global Intelligence Group (CCG) jointly issued the Chinese version of the “World Migration Report 2018”. By presenting immigration data at the global and regional levels, the report presents the complexity of immigration issues from different dimensions and provides rigorous and effective empirical analysis and policies for immigration practitioners, policy makers, and researchers, Suggestions.
The conference was chaired by Li Jie, Director of the Liaison Office of the IOM in China. The Director-General of the International Organization for Migration, William Swain, released the report. Li Li, Deputy Director of the National Bureau of Immigration, Li Wen, Senior Consultant for the Asia Pacific Region of the International Organization for Migration, and Jun Jun, Senior National Project Officer of the Immigration Organization in China attended the conference. .
The World Migration Report 2018, as the ninth report of the IOM’s World Migration Report Series, highlights the complex and sudden problems faced by decision makers in the immigration field and aims to promote the dynamics of current and long-term immigration development. understanding. Following the “World Migration Report 2013: Immigration Benefits and Development” and the “World Migration Report 2015: Immigration and the City: Managing New Partnerships for Mobilizing Population”, this is the third time for the Global Intelligence Group (CCG) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Cooperatively publish the Chinese version of the most influential annual report in the field of international immigration.
The “World Migration Report 2018” presents the latest data on immigration at the global and regional levels, and conducts in-depth analysis of increasingly complex and outstanding immigration issues. These data and analysis are designed to help decision makers and the general public better understand issues related to immigration migration. Through these analyses, we can see that the immigration issue is actually a cross-cutting multi-disciplinary phenomenon. Thinking about the relationship between immigration and other factors has also become an important aspect that policy makers need to consider.
Global immigrants latest trends
The number of international immigrants has risen dramatically and most immigrants live in high-income countries
The data collected in the World Migration Report 2018 comes from various organizations such as the UN Economic and Social Council, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Labor Organization, the UN Office for Refugees, and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, and comprehensively reviews the number of global immigrants and Trends in mobility discussed remittances and special migrant groups such as refugees, internally displaced persons and asylum-seekers. According to the report, by 2015, the number of global immigrants has reached 244 million, far exceeding the 153 million in 1990, while domestic migrants are estimated to exceed 740 million. However, the proportion of immigration in the world’s population has remained relatively stable. In 2015, immigration accounted for 3.3% of the world’s total population. Immigrant ages (20 to 64) are the mainstay of immigrants, accounting for 72% of the total number of immigrants.
As of 2015, Europe and Asia have received the largest number of immigrations in the world, and they have received 62% of the global immigration population. Followed by North America, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and Oceania. At the same time, as of 2015, the United States is the largest destination for immigration, with 46 million immigrants in 2015, and India is the world’s largest exporter of immigration, exporting more than 15 million immigrants.
In 2015, two-thirds of the international immigrants lived in high-income countries, amounting to 157 million. Seventy-seven million immigrants live in middle-income countries and nine million immigrants live in low-income countries.
Migrant workers constitute the main body of international migration
According to the 2013 data, the number of migrant workers in 2013 reached 153 million, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the total number of immigrants in the year (2/3). The vast majority of migrant workers live in high-income countries, and there are few migrant workers going to low- and middle-income countries. In the same year, the vast majority of migrant workers were engaged in service labor.
Remittances are an important source of income for developing countries
The available data indicate that overseas Chinese aggregates have grown in recent decades, rising from US$126 billion in 2000 to US$575 billion in 2016. Since the 1990s, the amount of overseas remittances has greatly exceeded the total amount of official aid projects designed to help the economic development of developing countries.
High-income countries are an important source of remittances. In 2015, the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland were the world’s leading foreign exchange remittances.
Significant differences in the distinctive features of immigrants from different regions
Africa: There are a large number of unconventional immigrants in Africa, including large numbers of immigrants trying to migrate to Europe in an unconventional manner. Conflict, political turmoil and natural disasters have caused a large number of people in Africa to be displaced. At the same time, many countries in Africa are both the major exporters of refugees and the main recipients of refugees.
Asia: The number of immigrants migrating in Asia is the most significant, followed by the number of immigrants leaving Asia. The differences in immigration characteristics within Asia are also very clear. India and China are the two countries with the largest number of immigrants from Asia, but the proportion of the population of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries is much higher than that of other countries. For example, in 2015, the number of immigrants in the United Arab Emirates accounted for 88% of the total population, and the number of immigrants in Kuwait accounted for 74% of the total population. Migration in Asia is also related to a series of historical events such as the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the war in Afghanistan for many years and the conflict in Syria in recent years. In addition, labour migration in Asia is also an important feature of immigrants in the region.
Europe: More than half of the world’s immigrants live in Europe, and immigration in Europe is particularly active. Germany, Russia and the United Kingdom have the largest number of immigrants in Europe, but the proportion of immigrants in Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and Ireland accounts for the highest proportion of the population. In terms of receiving refugees and asylum-seekers, Germany is the country with the largest number of refugees and asylum-seekers in Europe, mainly receiving refugees from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan.
Latin America and the Caribbean: An important feature of immigration in Latin America and the Caribbean is the large population relocation to North America. Mexico is the country with the largest number of immigrants in the region and is second only to India in the world. Long-term wars in countries such as Colombia have also caused large numbers of displaced people.
North America: North American immigration is characterized by a large number of people moving in, most of them from Latin America and the Caribbean, followed by Asia and Europe. In 2015, two countries in the region, the United States, had the largest number of immigrants in the world, and Canada also ranked seventh in the world in terms of immigrants.
Oceania: Oceania attracts a large number of immigrant groups from Europe and Asia. However, the distinct characteristics of the countries’ migrants in the region are that some countries are net exporters of migrants and some countries are net recipients of migrants. Australia and New Zealand are the countries with the largest number of immigrants in the region, and the number of immigrants continues to rise. Some of these immigrants are composed of students from countries such as China and Japan.
China’s immigration dynamics: Domestic immigration is one of the important features of Chinese immigrants
The Chinese version of the “World Migration Report 2018” issued jointly by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Global Intelligence Group (CCG) also records immigration data related to China. In Asia, China and India are the two countries with the largest number of immigrants. In 2015, immigrants from China constituted the fourth-largest immigrant group in the world after India, Mexico, and Russia. Nearly 10 million Chinese-born immigrants live outside China, of whom more than 2 million live in the United States.
China has a large number of displaced workers, which means that China is also one of the world’s largest recipients of overseas remittances. In 2016, the amount of remittances to China was more than US$60 billion. China is also one of the countries with the largest number of overseas remittances. In 2015, China remitted some US$ 20.42 billion.
Domestic immigration is one of the important characteristics of Chinese immigrants. The differences in the level of economic development in the eastern and western parts of China have led to a large number of laborers moving from the west to the east in search of more employment opportunities, higher income and education.
In addition, foreign students form an important part of China’s emigration. In the United States, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and other countries, the number of international students from China has continued to grow, and gradually developed into an important part of the local population.
The Immigration Report 2018 focuses on immigration issues
In addition to presenting key global and regional data, the World Migration Report 2018 also discusses issues that policy makers may face in formulating policies. These include: the global governance framework of international migration, the relationship between different cross-border linkages and types and immigration, media coverage in the immigration field, and the relationship between immigration and the city. At the same time, the report also presents immigration issues from the individual level of immigration and helps policy makers to better understand immigration’s feelings and experiences, and to improve policy development.
The World Migration Report 2018 affirms the positive impact of migration on the country. First, the huge remittance income generated by immigration has made an important contribution to the national GDP. This is particularly evident in low- and middle-income countries. At present, the revenue of overseas remittances in the world far exceeds the amount of official aid projects that support the construction of developing countries, which provides an important impetus for the development of these countries. Immigrants can also help improve people’s lives. Through migration, people get more job opportunities, better education and higher income to improve their own lives and their families, and thus reduce poverty. In addition, immigrants can also promote the flow of technology, knowledge, and labor, and thus accelerate the sharing of information and technological progress.
The release of the Chinese version of the “World Migration Report 2018” is also of great significance to Chinese society in understanding international immigration issues. Currently in the field of international migration and immigration, Chinese society and the general public have limited knowledge of related issues. This, to a certain extent, is still in its infancy in China’s domestic research on international immigration. There are few authoritative studies and weak social influence. The publication of the Chinese version of the “World Migration Report 2018” is aimed at enriching the professional information in the immigration field and enhancing Chinese society’s understanding of immigration and international migration issues.
Compared with previous report series, from the perspective of data and trends, the migration data recorded in the “World Migration Report 2018” is more authoritative and diversified. It also provides an in-depth and comprehensive view of the overall international migration phenomenon at the regional and sub-regional levels. From the perspective of the construction and progress of international migration theories, this report introduces us to the authoritative research journals and achievements in the field of international migration, and introduces global governance governance norms and systems from a global governance theory perspective. This not only provides a good study of soil and nutrients for China’s study of global migration governance, but also provides policy makers and policy practitioners with broader governance ideas. At the same time, the “World Migration Report 2018” also provides a multi-dimensional information supply for issues related to international immigration and the orientation of public opinion, and it is also a very meaningful measure for promoting the concept of globalization of people in China.
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